PROTOTYPING AND MODELMAKING FOR PRODUCT DESIGN. Laurence King Publishing. Published in by. Laurence King Publishing Ltd – City. Email to a Friend (iningilworkren.tk /cat_id/42/). Prototyping and Modelmaking for Product Design. By Bjarki. [PDF] Prototyping and Modelmaking for Product Design (Portfolio Skills). Prototyping and It is definitely basic but surprises in the 50 % of the pdf. It is extremely.
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PDF | Prototypes and models are an essential element in the design process. Model making in early step of design process, -beside of. product development cycle to explore possible mechanical architec- tures for a design. PDF · WEB · VIDEO. 1 Introduction. Creating physical prototypes is an integral part of the Figure 1 shows the printed prototype of a cabinet design generated by our system, Prototyping and modelmaking for product design. Prototyping And Modelmaking For Product Design PDF. Trevor Linsley's textbooks have helped thousands of students to gain their electrical installation.
Some products, such as a paperclip, consist of a single part. Often a product is an assembly of multiple parts. PCB A printed circuit board PCB mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.
PCBs can be single sided one copper layer , double sided two copper layers or multi-layer. A project may have a user-research phase, a concept phase, etc. Pilot Run An initial small production run produced as a check prior to commencing full-scale production.
Well-established platform for mechanical CAD with large user base. Program A body of design work for a single organisation, typically involving multiple projects.
Alternatively a piece of computer software, increasingly called apps or applications. Project A specific, defined design task. In this context often a product.
May also be more narrowly defined, such as a piece of stand-alone research or a conceptual exploration used to gather knowledge without necessarily being intended for production. Proposal Stated approach to a design project. This is a response to a brief. Prototype A model made during the design process to assess aspects of the design prior to manufacture.
Usually physical, but may take other forms, including on-screen or even Post-it notes. Computer technology has completely changed the way in which products are conceived and developed. Why We Prototype 7 Prototyping and modelmaking. Prototyping is a design method that uses physical prototypes to study and test how a new product will be used. Prototypes are also used to study and compare alternative approaches.
A student examines progress on a drill appearance prototype in the lab. Whereas computer simulation can be used to verify many technical requirements.
By being mindful of the reasons why we prototype. By experiencing real materials and processes. Physical and Digital Prototypes Product designers need to have competency in several skills. We actually learn different things from making the prototype modelmaking than we do from using the prototype prototyping.
This includes testing everything from technical requirements of construction to usability. Virtual computer models allow us to visualize the product.
Physical prototypes. For this reason. These questions usually have to do with the qualitative human aspects. Building by Hand and Using Computers All physical prototypes used to be built manually by hand.
There is. This has already happened with the digital sketching pad. Chapter 7 discusses how manual and digital ways of working complement each other and how new technologies such as laser scanning help designers reverse-engineer handmade models into CAD.
Modern design process is evolving. What starts as sketches and quick handmade models gradually migrates to the computer and eventually from there to rapid prototyping or CNC machining. As will be shown in the case studies in this book.
This may create the impression that prototypes no longer need to be made by hand at all. It is not a question of physical versus digital. Experienced designers build a great many physical prototypes along with virtual computer models.
The emphasis is on the kinds of construction that can be done by the designers themselves. As students leave their universities. Being able to create models in simple materials in a healthy and safe manner will be important.
Health and safety is stressed in terms of personal responsibility and awareness. The second part of the book is an introduction to the typical materials used by designers in their prototyping efforts and how to work with them.
In all cases the approach is to use digital and manual tools in a complementary and effective fashion. Why We Prototype 9 New interfaces are changing the way designers work.
Prototypes serve many purposes in order to reduce the risk associated with that level of investment. The time involved and the cost of making various types of tooling and setting up an assembly line. A simple foamcore mock-up allowed engineers and designers to study internal component placement for the Motion Computing J computer. Mass-manufactured products achieve their economy of scale through tooling. Polyurethane foam.
Material Substitution Early on in a project. At the early stages of a project. Products have to sell in the thousands before this investment starts to pay off. As the design gets closer to production. This is really useful when designing products that have internal components. Since prototypes are built only in small numbers.
Every project has time and money constraints. They are. That is critical to making sure that the product will work as intended.
Examining the many iterations of the Oral-B toothbrush below. Physical prototyping does not have to be expensive. By discovering a failure in a prototype.
This shows the importance of trying things out early. Simple prototypes will expose obvious problems or show that an idea is viable. These dictate the quantity of prototypes and iterations to be made. The important thing is to subject the prototypes to enough evaluation and testing to expose possible failures beforehand. Being afraid of failure is really nothing more than taking unnecessary risk. The sooner these problems are discovered the easier it is to accommodate changes to the design.
Iteration The iterative aspect of prototyping is key. When presenting the outcome of this exploration to an audience that is not well versed in design process. This is because the human-use issues can become extremely clouded by technical assumptions and parameters. The case studies and examples in this book are meant to help illustrate how to break these larger problems into smaller.
If the modelmaking is supporting a very quick and dirty prototyping effort that is done in order to study options as effectively as possible. In that case the level of detail may still be low. The material qualities needed to explore form versus function are also different.
Understanding how people interact with products is critical to framing the design and hence prototyping objective. A hard material may be needed for strength in the works-like prototype. This is often a matter of audience. At that point. Fidelity should not be confused with level of workmanship.
This is also a function of identifying the context: Technological issues and human interaction aspects have to be looked at separately to some extent. It is often much faster to build separate prototypes for this reason. Lunar Design. Palo Alto. When building prototypes it is therefore useful to distinguish between looks-like and works-like prototypes. It is to include a concentrator in a folding travel hairdryer.
During conceptualization. The design problem was that a concentrator. The pictures show how is stored on top of the handle. The idea behind this product is quite simple. Once the design parameters were better understood it was time to start focusing on the appearance and detailed shape. At the same time polystyrene foam models were made interviewed to see what they thought.
Once the could be dimmed by simply twisting 3D CAD data existed. Establishing overall lighting product that could be used form and proportion was done with both inside and outside the house. It had to have a suitable aesthetic for indoor as. A very simple works-like through these simple prototypes prototype was used to examine the allowed the design team to start idea of incorporating a dimmer into designing the product in 3D CAD the bottom of the lantern.
Although such a simple model was useful in exploring the basic functionality. By working closely with the offshore supplier. In order to achieve the hollow convex shape. Batteries were taped on to get a feel for the weight. It is important to realize that if this had not been the case. A Styrofoam looks-like prototype was used to determine the proportions and overall shape in the context of different environments and uses. It was also possible to study the placement of the lantern on the base and its removal.
In these cases. Such subtle required some manufacturing experimentation. Establishing that charged. The cost and time invested in 3D CAD development and the rapid prototype foreground were now more assured. Sometimes a design presents manufacturing A discreet indicator on the charging base changes challenges. The works-like prototypes had to incorporate stronger materials. The prototypes evolved from initial sketches and explorative models to reveal more promising design directions.
Before Mixer Design Group started designing the keyboard appearance in detail. By videotaping users interacting with works-like prototypes. The keyboard had to be easy to attach.
D four-bar linkage mechanism. Chosen options were developed further to investigate ease of use and convenience: A sliding keyboard model. B model incorporating the keyboard in the cover. C book-like mechanism.
Exploring new materials or technologies is just as important as exploring form and function. The following categorizations are not meant to be prescriptive. The famous Finnish architect Alvar Aalto developed his innovative laminated birchwood furniture through an extensive prototyping approach.
This is even more important today. Carleton University students. A single prototype often has more than one function: Functional exploration is usually highly experimental and rough. Exploration has everything to do with curiosity and discovery. In conjunction with sketches and other design methods they aid in: Sometimes products are taken apart and recombined into new functional creations. The Nike Trash Talk shoe. This quickly helps to gauge whether an idea is worth pursuing and may even lead to fruitful unexpected insights.
Different organizations will have different names for explorative prototypes. For example. Explorative prototyping involves rapid and sequential modelmaking to supplement sketches. Also use materials to experiment. User Testing A modern design approach involves ongoing research into how people interact with a new product.
These that involved a series of explorative prototypes in insights in turn lead to more innovative products because the designers learned addition to sketching and computer work.
This is an experiment to answer questions: By building a set of early works like prototypes they were better able Speed is of the essence in order to examine different options effectively before to evaluate different ideas and approaches quickly committing to a particular design direction. Guidelines for Exploration: Professional industrial designers build many early prototypes to generate and explore ideas in conjunction with sketching and computer work.
Prototypes are thus used to test a range of ergonomic considerations. By doing this early on in the design process. Designers use prototypes to look at what people can and want to do. The approach is models to visualize and evaluate ways in which to often to work directly from a quick sketch rather than to create exact drawings.
This type of ethnographic research is greatly aided by prototypes and includes videotaping of participants to uncover obvious problems or to verify that the design is proceeding in the right direction.
By focusing on people and their interactions. The more alternatives that are investigated. The iterative test cycle includes observation of end users. Paper prototyping is a technique for testing a screen-based interface with a series of paper templates that mimic the software. Sometimes the entire environment of use may need to be prototyped. This allows more options to be explored and changes to be made.
Testing can lead to some interesting and unexpected design opportunities. This is also an opportunity to address a more inclusive design process by considering universal access issues in regards to people with disabilities.
Communication Product design is inherently an interdisciplinary activity.
If the information is to be published or shared. Common sense obviously dictates that participants should never be involved in something that could have any adverse effect.
The overall experience and purpose is the starting point. User testing is only for the purpose of seeing if people can easily use the product: In the movie industry. Guidelines for Usability Testing: Participants Choosing the right participants is an important consideration. Fortunately there are many good resources for conducting ethical studies. Whereas classmates might be useful for pilot studies.
Suggested further reading is listed at the end of this book. Product designers frequently need to communicate their ideas to end users. If in doubt do not proceed and instead get expert help. A series of still photographs with participants using physical prototypes and acting out intended scenarios can be used in the same way. Consider the rights of the people participating in your testing. CNC machining parts in high-density polyurethane foam has often been the preferred approach to making appearance models.
The appearance models were instrumental in making sure that the Motorola brand was clearly visible on national television. This included the use of actual broadcast video to examine different logo options in snow and fall outdoor lighting situations. This level of detail can be created in computer renderings. The idea was to simplify regular electric chainsaw maintenance. These processes are described in detail in Chapter 8: Tools pages 65— The student project at top left demonstrates how an appearance prototype was used to communicate both the form and innovative features for a new electric chainsaw.
The appearance prototype does not work. They can also be displayed at trade shows. Not only should This student-built appearance prototype clearly communicates the design details and innovative the form and edges be precise and include exact edge radii. The level of skill and amount of time involved in making such models is very high. There are distinct advantages to both.
In the NFL coaches headset redesign page CAD models can in turn be output to 3D printed models see rapid prototyping in Chapter 8. Virtual simulation can happen very quickly and is useful to study the effects of loading and other functional parameters. Digital CAD simulation has become an essential part of the process to verify overlapping issues with regard to appearance. At the same time it is impossible to verify ergonomic issues such as comfort without real physical prototypes.
More advanced tools include Finite Element Analysis to check for stresses. Where will they see the prototype and when? Will the prototype be on display or will it be used for a demonstration purpose? Technical Performance Testing Technical components such as motors. As can be seen. These standards are designed to protect consumers and are produced by organizations that specialize in assessing product risks and dangers.
When they speak about a wireframe they are referring to the layout of a website. The tests simulate possible dangers. It is worthwhile becoming more aware of these semantic differences since product design has become inherently interdisciplinary. From Start to Finish: Comprehensive Case Studies This test setup was built by Mixer Design Group to simulate and test the effect of a dog biting a pet toy.
This simulates a person falling off a bike traveling a certain speed and hitting various objects. In industry. Safety Standards Testing Product safety standards involve physical testing in a controlled laboratory environment. The amount of suction inside the box is measured while the In closing it should be noted that product designers have to work with vacuum is running to verify performance.
The testing is done in highly controlled environments to ensure safety for the technicians and to have accurate results. Electronics engineers speak about prototyping printed circuit boards. The testing apparatus in this case is made to obtain repeatable and measurable quantitative data. Software designers use the term prototype in the context of code. The testing may include a benchmark of prototyping.
Standards organizations and independent testing labs will perform these tests for companies. Student projects may last a few days or a whole year. Bicycle helmets. Prototyping in Different Disciplines This test setup was built by FilterStream to test the suction of its handheld vacuums.
For one. Instead the focus is on learning. The initial explorations started with bent wire in order to create the semblance of an all-metal chair. There is a playfulness and curiosity in the early prototypes that is focused yet experimental.
Grcic gives many reasons when asked about the importance of making prototypes. Quick explorative prototypes can be examined. In exploring design solutions. Once proportions had been explored. This model was reverse-designed into CAD using measurements. A cantilevered plastic chair presents a problem for ordinary plastic materials. An early prototype for the Myto chair made from cardboard and perforated sheet metal was used to explore the overall form factor and design strategy.
The chair needed to be attractive and strong. A solid Styrofoam model shown in white was used to verify the shape of the seating surface. This model was then reverse. The seat surface was covered with tape to explore and communicate different perforation patterns. The 3D CAD model was was separated into a thick frame. Each of the three different types of use had to be considered in its own context. All these environments had to it was critical to understand how the be studied and understood in detail.
According to electric vehicle charging port while design director Howard Nuk at Frog. This raised of each product is different. Simple models help wall-mounted unit designed for private pulled? What would happen when the people visualize ideas and aid discussion among garages or carports. The cable wrap was instead wrap should be kept very close to the wall and and methods may vary based on the made into a separate entity. Taking For the wall-mounted residential photographs and creating layouts of unit.
For the pedestal-mounted unit. Different solutions were brainstormed and visualized as small-scale models. The light quality of the LEDs was extensively studied with prototypes. These were useful for discussion and enabled the team to discount complex and unworkable ideas from the start. In order to achieve the minute charge. Computer renderings appearance models were produced to were complemented with real physical prototypes complement 3D CAD virtual models.
In order to evaluate the design in its proper physical context. Models were evaluated in real environments in order to verify and tweak the design. An initial computer model showed that there was enough room to move the device around the patient in the operating room. This new product would allow doctors to monitor patients directly in the operating room rather than only before and after surgical procedures.
The primary engineering requirement was that the scanner had to be able to perform rotational imaging with very little vibration. User testing. Additionally the keyboard and monitor needed to be easily accessible during surgery. The scanner also had to be easily maneuvered by one nurse in this environment. Imaging during surgery meant that a unique user interface with an integrated keyboard and image monitor would have to be developed.
This is evident graphical user interface for the device. Looks-like versus works-like prototype of the frame. It was used to explore A second-generation prototype options. This established certain requirements. During the initial part of the project NewDeal designers researched the issues that were important for the design of the product. The designers covered the walls with sketches. The form. The aim was to develop a very precise and plausible design. The best ideas were combined and distilled into the preferred conceptual direction.
After reviewing the initial sketch and model explorations with the client. At this stage anything goes and forms the basis for exploration. The models were thus used to explore the form in more detail. Elevation views gave a good idea of the visual and sculptural design intent.
The 3D polystyrene models gave a much clearer idea of the overall proportions and what the water- dispensing area should look like at the front. Explorative handmade models in polystyrene foam allowed the designers to explore the form in more detail. They were accurately machined on a CNC to be suitable for presentation to a wider audience. New simple toolkits to explore interactive product ideas in the form of works-like prototypes have become increasingly popular and accessible.
Products therefore increasingly incorporate a growing list of interactive technologies. What is particularly attractive is that they do not require an extensive knowledge of electronic design. Software can be downloaded from the open-source site www. It is programmed through a at their disposal.
Design students have several toolkits sound.
The focus here is not on electronics sensors. Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform that can be used to create interactive products. Screen- based interfaces can. Beyond screen-based interfaces. The Arduino board also uses sensors and is able to drive outputs. The Smart Rollator project at Carleton University. The handheld devices to create a socially interactive museum guide itself is comprised of four tangible devices. British tested with simple paper prototypes.
It The Kurio interactive museum guide working prototypes were made that is comprised of four handheld devices.
They include a pointer for pointing to an artifact. Simon Fraser University. In order to repair the time map. The system was not envisioned like this at the beginning of the project. These devices are co-ordinated through a PDA screen-based device that is operated by a parent.
Y-shaped divining rod. The four collecting devices are easy to operate and simply have one button. The earlier. The reader tool. The did not actually work. The Kurio system allows visitors to choose from a range of interactive scenarios — in one scenario a family imagines themselves as time travelers whose time map is broken and so they are It uses a set of four different wireless lost in the present time.
This was a key insight. Kurio handheld museum guide: These included a variety of sensors as well as wireless technology. A simulated museum exhibit served as a setting for initial user testing of non-working prototypes by groups of families.
Can the model serve several uses.
Appropriateness There is a difference between a model built for exploration and one built to persuade clients and investors about the value of a concept. What is faster? What is easier to change? Also use the computer effectively. Please read Chapter 5 on health and safety page 45 and never attempt to use any machine tools without the proper training and supervision. This means that since there are no internal functional parts.
Health and Safety Nothing is more important than safety. These help to keep the big picture in mind. Effectiveness Models should be built in an effective way. These will in turn help to guide the choices of materials as well as process. Always wear the appropriate safety clothing and equipment. This also requires some discipline.
How precise does the model need to be? A lower level of precision may be faster and more economical. Purpose The model is built to serve the prototyping uses outlined in the Prototyping section of Chapters 1 to 3. It is therefore often more economical to build separate models to examine appearance versus function. Looks-like models will usually be built in a solid form. The former can be rough and purposeful by virtue of its content.
Modelmaking materials often used in product design will be outlined in detail in the following chapters with step-by- step examples. Digital methods such as 3D printing are cleaner and safer alternatives to machining. The audience and venue are therefore important factors to be considered. Another aspect of material selection is experimentation. Relying solely on known materials will limit your design possibilities.
At some point these materials reach their potential. Take some time to experiment with safer. In order to realize new design possibilities you need to try new things. To an outside eye. Tools Some materials are worked easily with hand tools. The important thing is to think through your objectives and base your decisions on the guiding principles. The precision offered by mills and lathes is usually not required for quicker exploration work that forms the mainstay of in-house prototyping activity.
This obviously has to be taken into consideration both functionally and visually. There are always options when making a model and there is never going to be a single perfect right answer. This does not mean that the material has to be exact in terms of the intended material of manufacture.
Simple materials such as foamcore and paper might be suitable for making explorative models that can be created safely and quickly. Choices to Consider By considering and following the above guidelines you will be able to make better choices in both materials and process. The materials shown in this book serve as a basis for formal and functional exploration. Materials In prototypes. In practice. On the other hand.
It is important to complement this with explorations into new materials that need to be examined for their innovative virtues. The use of machine tools requires proper training and professional supervision. You still need to understand how to identify chemical hazards that may be hidden in a water-based product see Chapter 5.
Consult with your department and your health and safety committee for additional training about safety. Health and safety laws and regulations differ between and even within countries. People are likely to use different materials and processes from those outlined in the book. In addition. For your convenience a system of Safety Checks is highlighted at the beginning of Chapters 6 to 20 as a starting point.
It is a goal of this book to make people think twice about what they are doing when modelmaking. This includes. Electronics — Let us clear up your aluminum confusion.
August 8, AT Bjarki Hallgrimsson. Get the only spam-free daily newsletter about wearables, running a "maker business", electronic tips and more! Subscribe at AdafruitDaily. Filed under: